NVCC BIO 211
HUMAN ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY I
LAB MODEL: MUSCLES
LOCATION, ACTION, ORIGIN and INSERTION
   
   A Special Thanks to NVCC student Catherine ("Cait") Martello for her invaluable proofreading and suggestions.       

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Muscle 01
FRONTALIS
See Enlarged Head

LOCATION: A cutaneous muscle stretching over the forehead to the upper eyelid
ACTION: Draws back scalp, raises eyebrows,
wrinkles the brows
ORIGINS: 2 bellies: aponeurosis and the region
anterior to vertex (point of curvature)
INSERTION: Skin above the nose and the ears

Muscle 02
ORBICULARIS OCULI
See Enlarged Head

LOCATION: Surrounds the rim of the orbit
ACTION: Blinking, squinting, closes eyes
ORIGIN: Frontal and Maxilla
INSERTION: Tissues of the eyelid
Bone 03
NASAL BONE
Enlarged Head (3)
Simply know as the inferior region of the nasal bone here
Muscle 04
LEVATOR LABII SUPERIORIS
See Enlarged Head
LOCATION: Between the Orbicularis Oris and
the lower eye margin
ACTION: Opens lips; furrows upper lip
ORIGINS: Zygomatic bone and the infraorbital
margin of the Maxilla
INSERTION: Skin and muscle of the upper lip
Muscle 05
ZYGOMATICUS MAJOR
See Enlarged Head
LOCATION: From the Zygomatic arch to
the corners of the mouth
ACTIONS: Draws angle of the mouth
backwards and upwards; smiling
ORIGIN: Zygomatic bone in front
of the temporal process
INSERTION: Angle of mouth
Muscle 06
ORBICULARIS ORIS
See Enlarged Head
LOCATION: Multilayered
Mostly surrounding the lips
ACTIONS: Purses and protrudes lips
Kissing and whistling
ORIGIN: Indirectly from the Mandible and the Maxilla and other lip muscles
INSERTIONS: Encircles the mouth
Inserts into muscle and skin at the angles of the mouth
Muscle 07
DEPRESSOR ANGULI ORIS
See Enlarged Head
LOCATION: Present on both sides of the mouth
ACTIONS: Active during whole face frowning
Depresses the corner(s) of the mouth
ORIGIN: Mandible
INSERTION: Angles (corners) of the mouth
Muscle 08
TEMPORALIS
See Enlarged Head
LOCATION: Fan-shaped muscle
Covers parts of the Temporal,
Frontal and Parietal bones
ACTIONS: Closes jaw
Elevates/retracts the Mandible
A small region of this muscle can
help to protract the Mandible
ORIGIN: Temporal fossa
INSERTION: Coronoid process of the Mandible
via a tendon that passes deep to
the Zygomatic arch
Bone OA
CRANIUM
See Enlarged Head
This is bone.
It is the portion of the skull
that encloses the brain.
The roof (cap) of the skull is
referred to as the Calvarium.
Muscle AA
BUCCINATOR
Swww Enlarged Head
LOCATION: Main muscle of the cheek
Thin/horizontal plane
Deep to the Masseter
ACTIONS: Compression of the cheeks
Holds food between the
teeth while chewing
ORIGIN: Molar area of Maxilla and Mandible
INSERTION: Orbicularis Oris

Muscle BB
MASSETER
See Enlarged Head

LOCATION: Strong muscle covering the lateral aspect of the Mandible (ramus)
ACTIONS: Elevates the Mandible
Closes the jaw
ORIGIN: Zygomatic bone (arch)
INSERTION: Mandible (angle and ramus)
Muscle 09
POSTERIOR AURICULAR
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Surrounds auricula (external outer ear)
ACTION: Draws auricle backwards
ORIGIN: Mastoid process
INSERTION: Cartilage of the ear
Muscle 10
OCCIPITALIS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Part of the Occipitofrontalis muscle which contains the Frontalis and Occipitalis portions (bellies).
Both bellies are not seen in their entirety here
ACTION: Moves the scalp
ORIGIN: Occipital and Temporal bones
INSERTION: Aponeurosis (galea)
Muscle 18
DELTOID
Both Left and Right Full - Body models
LOCATION: Thick rounded muscle
forming shoulder mass
ACTIONS: Arm flexor
Rotates arm medially
Adducts arm
When the Scapula is fixed, this
muscle pulls the rib cage upwards
Assists in throwing, pushing and forced inspiration
ORIGINS: Surrounds the insertion of the Trapezius and the lateral third
of the Clavicle
Also: Scapula (acromion and spine)
INSERTION: Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)
Muscle 18
DELTOID
Both Left and Right Full - Body models
LOCATION: Thick rounded muscle
forming shoulder mass
ACTIONS: Arm flexor
Rotates arm medially
Adducts arm
When the Scapula is fixed, this
muscle pulls the rib cage upwards
Assists in throwing, pushing and forced inspiration
ORIGINS: Surrounds the insertion of the Trapezius and the lateral third
of the Clavicle
Also: Scapula (acromion and spine)
INSERTION: Humerus (deltoid tuberosity)

Muscle 36
Hamstring
Group:
 
BICEPS FEMORIS
Smaller Model on the Left (36)
Members of the HAMSTRING group:
Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosis/us and the
Semimembranosis/us (last is not labeled)

LOCATION: Most lateral muscle of the
hamstrings
group.
This group also includes the Semintendinosus (37) and the Semimembranosis (not labeled)
ACTIONS: Extends thighs
Flexes knee
Laterally rotates the leg,
especially when the knee is flexed
ORIGINS: Long Head:  
Ischial Tuberosity
Short Head:
Distal Femur and Linea Aspera
INSERTION: A common tendon inserts into the Fibula (head) and the
Tibia (lateral condyle)
Muscle 40
SOLEUS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Flat, broad muscle of the calf
just below the Gastrocnemius
ACTION: Plantar flexes foot
ORIGIN: Fibula and Tibia;  Popliteal fascia
INSERTION: Calcaneus by the Achilles tendon
Tendon 41
CALCANEAL TENDON
(Achilles tendon)
Smaller Model on the Left
This tendon is an extension of the
Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles.
It is believed to be the thickest and
strongest tendon in the human body and is
approximately 6 inches in length.
It is inserted into the middle part of the
posterior region of the Calcaneous (heel bone).
Muscle 39
GASTROCNEMIUS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Posterior leg (calf)
Superficial pair of bellies
ACTION: Flexes the foot when the knee is extended  
Since it crosses the knee joint,
it can flex the knee when
the foot is dorsiflexed
ORIGIN: By two heads from lateral and
medial condyles of the Femur
INSERTION: Posterior Calcaneous via the Calcaneal tendon

Muscle 37
Hamstring
Group:

SEMITENDINOSIS/US
Smaller Model on the Left
Members of the HAMSTRING group:
Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosis/us and the
Semimembranosis/us (last is not labeled)

LOCATION: Medial to the Biceps Femoris
Long, slender tendon begins approximately two-thirds of the
way down the thigh
ACTION: Extends the thigh and flexes the knee Along with the Semimembranosus, medially rotates the leg
ORIGIN: Ischial Tubersosity which is also shared with the long head of the Biceps Femoris
INSERTION: Medial region of the upper tibial shaft
Muscle 17
GLUTEUS MAXIMUS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Forms the bulk of the buttock mass
ACTION: Major extensor of the thigh
ORIGIN: Dorsal ilium, sacrum and coccyx
INSERTION: Femur (Gluteal tuberosity)
Iliotibial Tract (IT)
TENSOR FASCIA LATA
Smaller Model on the Left  (No Number)
LOCATION: Anterolateral aspect of the thigh
ACTION: Flexes, rotates the thigh medially
ORIGIN: Anterior region of the Iliac crest and the anterior superior Iliac spine
INSERTION: Iliotibial (IT) band
of the Fascia Lata
Muscle 16
LATISSIMUS DORSI
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Literally:  broadest muscle of the back
Dorso-lateral to the trunk of the body
Posterior to the arm
Covered by the Trapezius superiorly
Contributes to the posterior
wall of the axilla
ACTION: Adducts, extends and rotates
the Humerus medially
Bringing the arm down
in a power stroke
Examples:
Striking a blow, hammering,
swimming and rowing
ORIGIN: Lower Thoracic vertebrae spines
Indirectly via fascia to the Lumbar
and the Sacral vertebrae
INSERTION: Humerus
(floor of the intertubercular sulcus)
Muscle 14
TRAPEZIUS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Flat and triangular; mid - upper back
ACTION: Stabilizes, raises, retracts and rotates
the Scapula
ORIGIN: Occipital bone, spinous processes
of C-7 and all thoracic vertebrae
INSERTION: Continuous insertion along the Scapula (Acromion and Spine)
Lateral third of the Clavicle
Muscle 15
INFRASPINATUS
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Trapezoidal and flat along
the lower Scapula
ACTION: Laterally rotates the arm
at the shoulder
ORIGIN: Scapula (infraspinous fossa)
INSERTION: Humerus:
middle of the greater tubercle
Muscle 24
TRICEPS BRACHII
Smaller Model on the Left
LOCATION: Posterior compartment of the arm
ACTION: Extends the arm at the shoulder Extends the forearm at the elbow
ORIGIN: Three-headed at:
Scapula (infraglenoid tubercle)
Humerus
INSERTION: By a common tendon to the
Ulna (posterior process of olecranon)
"IT"   ILIOTIBIAL TRACT  (or band)
Smaller Model on the Left  (Grey box, no number)
This is a thickened lateral portion of the Fascia Lata
(fascia that ensheathes all the muscles of the thigh).
Extends as a tendinous band
from the iliac crest to the knee;
Extension of the Tensor Fascia Lata muscle
Muscle 11
STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Neck
ACTION: Flexes and rotates the head
Flexes the head towards the shoulders
ORIGIN: Manubrium and the Clavicle
INSERTION: Temporal bone (Mastoid Process)
Muscle 12
SCALENI MUSCLES
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Four (4) of these muscles:
Scalene
Scalene anterior
Scalene middle
Scalene posterior
ACTION: Flexion and rotation of the
Cervical Vertebrae
ORIGIN: Transverse processes of
various Cervical Vertebrae
INSERTION: Various ribs and Vertebrae
Muscle 20
PECTORALIS MAJOR
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Chest; upper/axillary (anterior)
ACTION: Arm flexion; medial rotation;
Forced inspiration;
Rib cage elevation
ORIGIN: Clavicle and Sternum;
Cartilages of Ribs 1 - 6
INSERTION: Humerus (Greater Tubercle)
Muscle 25
BICEPS BRACHII
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Arm (two heads)
ACTION: Flexes elbow joint;
Rotates hand laterally
ORIGIN: Scapula:
Short: Coracoid process
Long: Glenoid cavity
INSERTION: Radius:
Radial Tuberosity              
Muscle 26
EXTENSOR CARPI RADIALIS LONGUS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Lateral side of the Humerus
ACTION: Extends and abducts hand
at the wrist
ORIGIN: Humerus (Lateral Epicondlye)
INSERTION: Base of the 2nd Metacarpal (dorsal)
Muscle 27
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Lateral side of the Humerus
ACTION: Extends wrist and fingers;
Middle Phalanx of fingers 2 - 5
ORIGIN: Humerus (Lateral Epicondyle)
INSERTION: Distal Phalanges 2-5
Muscle 19
SERRATUS ANTERIOR
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Adjacent to the Thoracic wall
ACTION: Abducts (protracts) the Scapula;
Rotates the Scapula upwards while abducting the Arm
Holds Scapula to the Chest wall
ORIGIN: Anterior surfaces of the first 8 ribs
INSERTION: Scapula:
anterior surface and the medial border
Muscle 21
EXTERNAL OBLIQUE
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Anterior and lateral abdominal wall
ACTION: Flexes the vertebral column
ORIGIN: Lower 8 Ribs
INSERTION: Pubic Crest and the Iliac Crest
Muscle 30
BRACHIORADIALIS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Lateral region on the Lower Arm
ACTION: Flexes the forearm at the elbow
ORIGIN: Humerus:
Lateral Supracondyle ridge
INSERTION: Radius (Styloid Process)
Muscle 29
EXTENSOR POLLICIS BREVIS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Triangular in shape;
Wraps around the lower Radius
ACTION: Aids in abducting and
extending the thumb
ORIGIN: Radius (dorsal side)
INSERTION: Proximal phalanx of the Thumb
Muscle 31
SARTORIUS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Straplike;
Longest muscle in humans;
Runs obliquely across the anterior surface of the Thigh to the Knee
ACTION: Flexes the Thigh, Flexes the Knee;
Abducts, laterally Rotates the Thigh;
Cross - legged position
ORIGIN: Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
INSERTION: Medial aspects of the Knee
Medial aspect of the proximal Tibia
Muscle 33
PECTINEAL
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Short/flat; overlies adductor brevis
ACTION: Adducts, flexes and
medially rotates the Thigh
ORIGIN: Pubis and Superior Ramus
INSERTION: Femur (posterior aspect);
Runs inferiorly from the Lesser Trochanter to the Linea Aspera

Muscle 32
Quadriceps
Group:
 
RECTUS FEMORIS
Location, Action, Origin and Insertion are below.
Large Model on the right

Members of the Quadriceps group:
Rectus Femoris (this box), Vastus medialis (next box),
Vastus lateralis (shown but with no number or info box), and lastly, the Vastus intermedius
The not-shown Vastus intermedius is hidden behind
the Rectus Femoris between the Vastus medialis
and the Vastus lateralis on the anterior thigh.

LOCATION: Part of the Quadriceps group;
Thigh: anterior aspect
ACTION: Flexes Thigh at the Hip;
Extends Knee
ORIGIN: Acetabulum: (superior margin);
Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine
INSERTION: Patellar and Tibial Tuberosity
via the Patellar Ligament
Muscle 35
ADDUCTOR LONGUS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Medial aspect of the Thigh
ACTION: Flexes the Thigh;
Abducts the Thigh;
Medially Rotates the Thigh
ORIGIN: Pubis (near Pubis Symphysis)
INSERTION: Linea Aspera
Muscle 34
GRACILIS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Long/thin on the Thigh (medial)
ACTION: Adducts the Thigh;
Flexes and Medially Rotates the Leg
ORIGIN: Pubis (body and Inferior Ramus)
INSERTION: Tibia (Medial surface)
Inferior to the Medial Condyle

No Number
Quadriceps
Group:

VASTUS MEDIALIS
Location, Action, Origin and Insertion are below.
Identified on the Large Model on the right
(no number)

Members of the Quadriceps group:
Rectus Femoris (32), Vastus medialis (this box),
Vastus lateralis (shown but with no number or info box), and lastly, the Vastus intermedius
The not-shown Vastus intermedius is hidden behind
the Rectus Femoris between the Vastus medialis
and the Vastus lateralis on the anterior thigh.

LOCATION: Part of the Quadriceps group;
Thigh: medial - region
ACTION: Extends the Knee
ORIGIN: Linea Aspera
INSERTION: Same as Rectus Femoris:
Patellar and Tibial Tuberosity
via the Patellar Ligament

Quadriceps Group:  
VASTUS LATERALIS
Location, Action, Origin and Insertion are below.
Identified on the Large Model on the right
(no number)

Members of the Quadriceps group:
Rectus Femoris (32), Vastus lateralis (below),
Vastus medialis and the Vastus intermedius (intermedius is not labeled).
The not-shown Vastus intermedius is hidden behind
the Rectus Femoris between the Vastus medialis
and the Vastus lateralis on the anterior thigh.

LOCATION: Part of the Quadriceps group;
Thigh: lateral - region
ACTION: Extends and stabilizes the Knee
ORIGIN: Femur (Greater Trochanter)
Linea Aspera
INSERTION: Same as Rectus Femoris:
Patellar and Tibial Tuberosity
via the Patellar Ligament
TIBIALIS ANTERIOR
Large Model on the right (43)
LOCATION: Anterior Leg
ACTION: Dorsiflexion and Foot inversion
ORIGIN: Tibia (Lateral condyle/upper shaft)
INSERTION: First Metatarsal bone
(via tendon)
GASTROCNEMIUS
Large Model on the right (39)
LOCATION: Proximal curve of the Calf;
Two (2) prominent bellies
ACTION: Flexes the foot when
the Knee is extended  
Since it crosses the knee joint,
it can flex the knee when the foot is dorsiflexed
ORIGIN: By two heads from lateral and
medial condyles of the Femur
INSERTION: Posterior Calcaneous via the Calcaneal tendon
Muscle 42
EXTENSOR DIGITORUM LONGUS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Anterolateral surface of the Leg
ACTION: Toe extension; dorsiflexes Foot
ORIGIN: Tibia   (Later Condyle);
Fibula (Proximal Shaft)
INSERTION: Middle/Distal Phalanges;
Toes 2 - 5
Muscle 22
RECTUS ABDOMINIS
Large Model on the right
LOCATION: Extends from the Pubis
to the Rib Cage;
Ensheathed by Aponeuroses of
the adjacent lateral muscles
ACTION: Flex and Rotate the Lumbar region
of the Vertebral Column;
Increase intra-abdominal pressure;
Used during sit-ups
ORIGIN: Pubis (Crest and Symphysis)
INSERTION: Xiphoid Process;
Costal cartilages of Ribs 5 - 7
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